e-SOTER field correlation tour (part II): Guandong

Research areas:  Germany, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
Excursions: AustraliaChina, Germany, Hungary, Morocco, Thailand (NE-part)

Excursions in China:
Hainan, Guandong

Date: June 5 - June 9, 2010

Brief Introduction of Guandong
Guandong province is situated in the southern part of China mainland. It adjoins Jiangxi and Hunan provinces to the north, Fujian province to the east, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region to the west and to the south across the Qiongzhou Strait is the island province of Hainan. Guandong province covers an area of over 180,000 square kilometers and has a population of approximately 74.7 million. It also has 3,368 kilometers of winding coastline, which is the longest in China. Rivers from all over the province meandering through the fertile Pearl River Delta and discharges into the South China Sea at the half waypoint of the coastline.

Guandong with visited soil profiles. 
Full extend.

The Pearl River Delta is one of China's most densely cultivated areas. Situated right at the top of this river delta at the confluence of the North River, East River and West River is the provincial capital city of Guangzhou, which was formerly known as Canton to the western world (Figure1).
Guandong has a subtropical climate. Summer can be sweltering hot and wet. Typhoon hit this province frequently in summer and autumn. Annual rainfall averages nearly 1500-2000 millimeters and annual temperature averages
19-26C (Zhang et al. 2010).
Figure 1: Pearl river in Guangzhou (former Canton).

Petrography of Guandong
The petrographic inventory of Guandong comprise among the igneous rocks mainly basalt and granite. The sediments and sedimentary rock consist of sand, gravel, conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, claystone, mudstone, shale, and limestone.

Soils of Guandong
The major reference soil groups according to WRB classification are Acrisols, Ferralsols, and Cambisols. This reference soil groups are assisted by Leptosols, and Fluvisols. In the frame of the e-SOTER field correlation tour some of the major reference soil groups of Guandong were examined. In the following a brief description of the visited soil profiles is given.

Profile 7
Soil type: Ferric Acrisol (Dystric, Rhodic)
Parent rock: basalt
Position: N20 16.555' E110
Figure 2: Acrisol on basalt.

Profile 8
Soil type: Pisplinthic Acrisol
Parent rock: basalt
Position: N20 17.736' E110
Figure 3: Acrisol on basalt

Profile 9
Soil type: Acric Ferralsol (Dystric, Rhodic)
Parent rock: basalt (not visible)
Position: N20 34.226' E110
Profile9aProfile9bFigure 4: Ferralsol probably on basalt (not visible).

Xia mountain
Position: N25 01.521' E113
44.278'; 408 m asl
Geology: Cretaceous (?) sandstone and conglomerate

Den Xia mountain
Figure 5: "Male stone" consisting of a sequence of conglomerate and sandstone.

Profile 10
Soil type: Luvisol/Alisol (no base saturation data available)
Parent rock: limestone
Position: N24 19.184' E113
Remark: the lower part of the soil profile consists of  karst pockets, containing Fe-concretions.
Figure 6: Quarry with a exhibition of mined limestone (left). Luvisol/Alisol on limestone, showing deep karst pockets (right).

Profile 11
Soil type: Luvisol/Alisol (analytic data not available)
Parent rock: fine-sandstone (above limestone)
Position: N24 16.393' E113
Figure 7: The vicinity of the visited soil profile (left). Luvisol/Alisol on talus-material consisting of fine-sandstone, overlaying limestone (right).

Profile 12
Soil type: Cutanic, Technic Acrisol (Dystric, Bathi-Ferric, Profondic)
Parent rock: slate containing pegmatite lenses
Position: N23 35.126' E113
Remark: the upper 60 cm consist of dumped soil material, containing slag fragments. These fragments might origin from the 1950ths.
Figure 8: Acrisol on slate and pegmatite (top). Highly weathered pegmatite (lower part, left). Highly weathered slate (lower part, right).


Zhang, G., Zhao, Y., Lu.Y., Li, D., Lu, Y., 2010. Field correlation tour guide of e-SOTER China pilot area. Region: Guandong. Field guide, unpublished.

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